Flow visualisation of a cavitating hydrofoil as part of a preliminary test validation study for a large numerical and physical research project.

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PAM-STAMP - Ironing


Ironing is used to control springback, in particular with high strength steel, and is a natural phenomenon in processes like coining.

Precision forming of processes where ironing or coining occurs requires the use of a particular Finite Element (FE) formulation, which takes into account through thickness stress.



The normal shell formulation is not sufficient to describe this phenomena, as the stress and strains in the normal element are not described well enough. Therefore, PAM-STAMP features a particular element to simulate ironing: TTS - Through Thickness Stress element.

This element takes into account thinning, normal stress and 3D plasticity induced by bilateral contacts. It is activated automatically when ironing phenomena appears. It is compatible with the Yoshida kinematic hardening model which means that it can be used for advanced springback simulations. Grey: real test with/without ironing Red: PAM-STAMP results without ironing Blue: PAM-STAMP results with ironing

PAM-STAMP Features